I.I DECAY OF THE CALIPHATE 87 him, later cut him out of the spiritual succession in favourl of a younger son Musa, known as Kazim. The reason' for this action is stated to have been that Ismail had drunk the forbidden wine. Shortly after this, and during the lifetime of Jafar, Ismail, the disinherited son, died. This act of disinheritance divided the Shias, for, although the large majority followed Musa, a considerable minority remained faithful to Ismail or rather, as he had never! been Imam, to his son Mohamed, whom they believed) to be the seventh and last Imam. The Carmathians.—The first missionary of the Ismaili faith in Irak during the Caliphate of Motazid was a certain Hamdan, surnamed Carmat, after whom the adherents of the doctrine were nicknamed Carmathians. He offered to join the Zanj leader, the " Reprobate," with one hundred thousand men, but they differed in their tenets and were unable to combine. Little seems to be known of Carmat's life, but he fell by the hands of an assassin. Later, the sons of a certain Zakaria, and after their capture and execution Zakaria himself, became leaders of the sect and engaged in savage wars.1 At the beginning of the fourth century of the Hijra Basra was stormed by Sulayman, yet another fanatic, and afterwards Kufa, and the terrible anarchy culminated in the sack of Mecca in A.H. 317 (929) and the carrying away of the Black Stone. After this the storm subsided and the sect was weakened by dissensions, but the recorded fact that in A.H. 396 (985) Multan was governed by a Carmathian shows how far its power and influence reached. These sects, all of whom fought against society, constitute one of the darkest sides to Islam. As will be seen later, their doctrines continued to be preached in Persia. The Rise of the Samanid Dynasty.—More powerful than the Tahirid or Saffarid families, which flourished in the one case only just over, and in the other just under, half a century, was the Samanid dynasty, which endured for a century and a quarter. Its founder was Saman, a Persian nobleman or Balkh, descended from Bahram 1 Al-biruni in his Chronology of Ancient Nations devotes a chapter to the eras of the Pseudo-Prophets, to which I would refer the curious reader. The best account of the Carmathians is in EncycL Religion and Ethics, vol. iii. p. azz.